I write from an Amtrak on my way to Yale University for this this year’s AAHM conference. On Sunday I will present a paper for a panel titled “Medicine, Disease, and the Framing of Race in the Slaveholding Atlantic” with two colleagues I admire greatly, Stephen Kenny (University of Liverpool) and Rana Hogarth (University of Illinois). I make the claim that Latin America experienced a significant and shared epidemiological change during its first century of independence. Using a case study of smallpox in Brazil, Latin America’s (second) “era of epidemics” may have had more profound consequences than we realize. A paper draft is here.